Note: Most of the information contained in this post can be found in our IEEE Article:
Proceedings of IEEE Internation Conference on Smart Grid Communications (SmartGridComm 2014). IEEE, 2014.. IEEE Communications Society, 2014.
Today we present the major M2M standard groups that have been investigating M2M communications requirements and issues, namely European Telecommunications Standardization Institute (ETSI), 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) and 802.16 Machine-to-Machine (M2M) Task Group.
|Standard||Specification Description||Specification Reference|
|3GPP||sA1- M2M study Report||3GPP TR 22.868|
|sA1- MTC service Requirements||3GPP TS 22.368|
|sA2 – system Improvements for MTC||3GPP TR 22.888|
|sA3 – M2M security Aspect for Remote Provisioning and subscription Change||3GPP TR 33.812|
|sA3 – security Aspect of MTC||3GPP TR 33.868|
|3GPP study on RAN Improvements for MTC||3GPP TR 37.868|
|3GPP study on GERAN Improvements for MTC||3GPP TR 43.868|
|IEEE 802.16 M2M Group||Technical Report on usage scenarios, requirements, and standards changes needed for supporting Machine to Machine (M2M) Communication||IEEE 802.16p-10/0005|
|M2M Evaluation Methodology Document||IEEE 802.16p-10/0014|
|ETSI||M2M service Requirements||ETSI TS 102 689|
|ETSI||Smart Metering Use Cases||ETSI TR 102 692|
23.888 – System Improvements for MTC
The scope of this Technical Report (TR) by 3GPP is the architectural enhancements to support a large number of Machine-Type-Communication (MTC) devices in the network and the enhancements to fulfill the MTC service requirements.
|Group Based Optimization||0 Solutions|
|MTC Devices communicating with one or more MTC Servers||3 Solutions|
|IP Addressing||10 Solutions|
|Small Data Transmission||3 Solutions|
|Low Mobility||4 Solutions|
|MTC Subscriptions||1 Solution|
|MTC Device Trigger||19 Solutions|
|Time Controlled||6 Solutions|
|MTC Monitoring||11 Solutions|
|Decoupling MTC Server from 3GPP Architecture||4 Solutions|
|Signaling Congestion Control||11 Solutions|
|MTC Identifiers||7 Solutions|
|Potential overload issues caused by Roaming MTC devices||6 Solutions|
|Low Power Consumption||0 Solutions|
The main issues identified in this document are Signaling Congestion Control, MTC Device Trigger and MTC Monitoring. While many solutions are proposed to IP Addressing, which is related to the lack of IP address in IPv4 and therefore it is considered as deprecated.
Signaling Congestion Control an overload is an urgent problem that Network Operators (NO) are currently facing. Though this issue can be partially solved in the application side to operate in a network friendly manner, it is difficult for network operators to influence the application developers.
MTC Device Trigger: many applications requires to remotely request reports from the MTC devices.
MTC Monitoring: For many MTC devices it is desired that the network detects and report events causes by those devices that may result from vandalism or theft of the communications module.
We also like to mention Group Based Optimization issue, which can help to alleviate the redundant signaling to avoid congestion. MTC devices can be grouped together for the control, management or charging facilities etc. to meet the need of the operators.
43.868 – GERAN Improvements for Machine-type Communications
The scope of the document compromises: GERAN enhancements for Smart Metering, improve efficient use of Radio Access Network (RAN) resources and overload and congestion control.
The current status of this TR is the definition of common assumptions for simulation tests, where M2M traffic models are provided for synchronous and asynchronous users. More precisely three traffic models are presented:
|T1||MTC devices accessing the network in an uncoordinated/non-synchronized manner|
|T2||MTC devices accessing the network in a coordinated/synchronized manner with a certain distribution|
|T3||Legacy devices accessing the network in an uncoordinated/non-synchronized manner|
37.868 Study on RAN Improvements for MTC
The study aims to study the traffic characteristics of different M2M applications and define new traffic models based on these findings. RAN enhancements to improve the support of MTC. These improvements are:
- Access class barring scheme
- Separate RACH resources for MTC
- Dynamic allocation of RACH resources
- MTC specific back off scheme
- Slotted access
- Pull based scheme.
Furthermore examples of RACH load for smart electric metering, fleet management and Earthquake monitoring are provided.
22.368 Service Requirements for MTC Communications
This document identifies the general requirements for MTC and where network improvements are needed to handle the specific nature of MTC communications.
M2M becomes massive also in terms of diversity across applications. Wireless M2M networks are instrumental to manage the complexity of tracking, fleet, and asset management. The industrial sector can widely apply M2M in monitoring and control of processes and equipment… Therefore the applications do not all have the same characteristics. The following MTC Features have been defined:
- Low Mobility
- Time Controlled
- Time Tolerant
- Small Data Transmissions
- Mobile Originated Only
- Infrequent Mobile Terminated
- MTC Monitoring
- Priority Alarm
- Secure Connection
- Location Specific Trigger
- Infrequent Transmission
- Group Based MTC Features
- Group Based Policing
- Group Based Addressing
IEEE 802.16’s Machine-to-Machine (M2M) Task Group is a relevant resource in terms of traffic characteristics and traffic models for Smart Grids and M2M applications.
|Application||Access Interval of Interest||Access Attempt/second
|Meter Reporting||5 minute||40||116.7|
|Meter Reporting||1 minute||200||583.3|
|Unsynchronized Alarm Reporting or Network Access||10 second||1200||3500|
|Last Gasp Event Reporting||500 millisecond||24000||70000|
To finish this post, the following two tables provides an excelent view of M2M Traffic patterns, where the average message size and the attempts per seconds is specified.